1. A giant tent larger than ten football fields will house a mini-city of summer during the winter months for residents of Astana.
The 150m-high (500ft) dome, designed by UK architect Norman Foster, will be built in just over a year. Underneath, in an area larger than 10 football stadiums, will be a city with squares and cobbled streets, canals, shopping centres and golf courses. The idea is to recreate summer, so that when the outside temperature is -30C, the residents of the Kazakh capital can play outdoor tennis, take boat rides or sip coffee on the pavement cafes.
2. Bringing light to a small town that has no daylight for 86 days due to a nearby mountain blocking sunlight. A very large mirror has been brought in to the top of the mountain to bring light to the town below during these depressing months for citizens.